Monday, 21 October 2013

PCB assembly process and its importance

Have you ever seen what is there inside your cellphone or computer that operates the system software? It’s not only your computer or mobile but every electronic device works because of an electronic circuitry present inside the device. This circuitry is the main functional unit which is a combination of many small components assembled with a printed circuit board (PCB).

The PCB assembly process:

The entire PCB assembly is a complicated process that involves the following processes.

• Solder paste printing: In this process an initial solder paste is applied on the PCB using a stencil. This concludes the initial binding process of the various components to the PCB.

• SMT Pick and Place assembly: This is considered as the heart of the entire assembly line. Here all individual chips are taken and placed accurately on their designated spots on the PCB.

• Through-hole curing: This is otherwise known as the Reflow mechanism. In this mechanism the board, after fixing the chips onto the solder paste, goes through a conveyor oven to melt the solder and bind the chips the PCB.

• Conformal coating: There are some boards which require lacquer coating for protection. Conformal coating process involves some special machinery work to apply a protective coating quickly and accurately.

• AOI & AXI: Automatic Optical Inspection (AOI) and Automated X-ray Inspection (AXI) are two processes done to make sure the total assembly process is free from errors and mistakes.

• Reworking: Well, this is done once any component or device is found defective or the whole assembly does not function properly. After testing reworking is done by heating the board and replacing the defective part of the PCB with a good one.

Each of these processes is again a complex process altogether which needs heavy technology involvement, specialist man-power and material consumption.

Importance of PCB manufacturing and assembling:

• Microprocessors and chips cannot do on their own. The process of building microprocessors and chips is itself a long and complicated process. But these chips, after they are manufactured, cannot perform their operations if they are not integrated onto the printed circuit board (PCB). So a PCB is an essential part of every electronic device.

• PCB manufacturers are specialists. All companies designing chips and microprocessors can also invest in making PCB integration; but it requires technology and specialists to make components and equipments needed for the integration and assembling of chips onto PCB.

• PCB assembly companies help devise the end-product. To facilitate the assembly work and provide assembly services the PCB integration companies have a no. of Surface Mount Assembly lines making sure the end-product is manufactured successfully.

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